θαμπό δέρμα


μαύροι κύκλοι

πανάδες - μέλασμα


  1. Littarru, G. P. Energy and defence. Facts and perspectives on coenzyme Q10 in biology and medicine. Casa Editrice Scientifica Internazionale 1-91, (1994)
  2. Crane, F. L., Hatefi, Y., Lester, R. I. and Widmer, C. Isolation of a quinone from beef heart mitochondria. Biochmi. Biophys. Acta 25, 220-221, (1957)
  3. Kamikawa, T., Kobayashi, A., Yamashita, T., Hayashi, H. and Yamazaki, N. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina pectoris. Am. J. Cardiol. 56, 247-251, (1985)
  4. Mortensen, S. A., Vadhanavikit, S. and Folkers, K. Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 in myocardial failure. Drug Exptl.Clin. Res. 7, 497-502, (1984)
  5. Ingold, K. U., Bowry, V. W. , Stocker, R. and Walling, C. Autoxidation of lipids and antioxidation by alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinol in of lipid particle size as exemplified by oxidation of human homogeneous solution and in aqueous dispersions of lipids: unrecognized consequences low density lipoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 11126-11130, (1993)
  6. Rusciani, L., Oradei, A., Lippa, S., Perosino, E., Romagnoli, A., Aureli, V. and Littarru, G. P. Coenzyme Q10 levels in human light-exposed and unexposed skin. In: Biomedical and clinical aspects of coenzyme Q. K. Folkers, G. P. Littarru and T. Yamgami. Elsevier Science Publishers. 125-128, (1991)
  7. Podda, M., Traber, M. G., Weber, C., Liang-Jun, Y. and Packer, L. UV-irradiation depletes antioxidants and causes oxidative damage in a model of human skin. Free Rad. Biol. and Med. 23, 55-65, (1998)
  8. Shindo, Y., Witt, E., Han, D., Epstein, W. and Packer, L. Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin. J. Invest. Dermatol. 102, 122-124, (1994)
  9. Giovannini, L., Bertelli, A. A., Scalori, V., Dell’Osso, L., Alessandri, M. G. and Mian, M. Skin penetration of CoQ10 in rat. Int. J. Tissue React. 10, 103-105, (1988)
  10. Blatt, T., Whittle, M., Maksiuk, T., Wolber, R., Keyhani, R., Untiedt, S., Kielholz, J., Gohla, S., Hoppe, U., Schachtschabel, D., Schreiner, V. and Stäb, F. Modulation of the oxidative stress response in aging skin by proand antioxidants. International Investigative Dermatology 110 532, (1998)

Preparation and Properties of Coenzyme Q10 Nanoemulsions
Authors: Fred Zülli*, Esther Belser, Daniel Schmid, Christina Liechti and Franz Suter, Mibelle AG Biochemistry, CH

  1. Gaby AR The role of coenzyme Q10 in clinical medicine: Part 1, Alternative Me Rev 1996;1(1):11-7
  2. Grane FL Biochemical functions of coenzyme Q10 J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Dec;20(6):591-8
  3. Damian MS et al. Coenzyme CoQ10 combined with mild hypothermia after cardiac arrest: a preliminary study. Circulation 2004;110:3011-3016
  4. Sandor PS et al. Efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in migraine prophylaxis: a randomizedcontrolled trial. Neurology. 2005 Feb 22;64(4):713-5.
  5. Hojerova J et al. Coenzyme Q10--its importance, properties and use in nutrition and cosmetics Ceska Slov Farm. 2000 May;49(3):119-23.
  6. Wei YH et al. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA mutation, and impairmentof antioxidant enzymes in ageing. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2002 Oct;227(9):671-82.
  7. Ibbotson SH et al. The effects of radicals compared with UVB as initiating species for the induction of chronic cutaneous photodamage J Invest Dermatol. 1999 Jun;112(6):933-8.
  8. Blatt T et al. Modulation of oxidative stresses in human ageing skin Z Gerontol Geriatr. 1999 Apr;32(2):83-8.
  9. Emerit I Free radicals and ageing of the skin. EXS. 1992;62:328-41. 
  10. Hoppe U et al. Coenzyme Q10, a cutaneous antioxidant and energizer. Biofactors. 1999;9(2-4):371-8.
  11. Boicelli CA et al. Ubiquinones: stereochemistry and biological implications. Membr Biochem. 1981;4(2):105-18.
  12. Wils P et al. High lipophilicity decreases drug transport across intestinal epithelial cells. Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 May;269(2):654-8.
  13. Kurowska EM et al. Relative bioavailability and antioxidant potential of two coenzyme q10 preparations. Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(1):16-21.
  14. Kommuru TR et al. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of coenzymeQ10: formulation development and bioavailability assessment. Int J Pharm. 2001 Jan 16;212(2):233-46.
  15. Pandey R et al. Nano-encapsulation of azole antifungals: Potential applications to improve oral drug delivery. Int J Pharm. 2005 Sep 14;301(1-2):268-76.
  16. Shults CW et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:1541-1550
  17. Kohlert F et al. Bioavailability of Q10 as powder vs Q10 in nanoparticles Publication in preparation
  18. Mezel M Biodisposition of liposome-encapsulated active ingredients applied on the skin in O. Braun-Falco, H. C. Korting, and H. I. Maibach, eds, Griesbach Conference on Liposome Dermatics; Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, Berlin, 206-14 (1992)
  19. Zuelli F et al. Preparation and properties of small nanoparticles for skin and hair care SOFW 1997;123(13):880-5
  20. Zuelli F et al. Preparation consisting of at least two nanoemulsions Mibelle AG, EP 1 516 662 A1, Patentblatt 2005/12
  21. Zuelli F et al. Nanoemulsions for delivering lipophilic substances into cells Mibelle AG, US 6 265 180 B1, Jul. 24, 2001

Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid: Its Effects on Epidermal Gene Expression & Skin Ageing
M. Farwick*, P. Lersch, G. Strutz

  1. Kielty CM, Whittaker SP, Grant ME, Shuttleworth CA. Type VI collagen microfibrils: evidence for a structural association with hyaluronan. J Cell Biol. 1992;118:979-90
  2. Baccarani-Contri M, Vincenzi D, Cicchetti F, Mori G, Pasquali-Ronchetti I. Immunocytochemicallocalization of proteoglycans within normal elastin fibers. Eur J Cell Biol. 1990; 53:305-12
  3. Cleland RL, Wang JL. Ionic polysaccharides. 3 Dilute solution properties of hyaluronic acid fractions. Biopolymers. 1970;9:799-810
  4. Bhattacharya J, Cruz T, Bhattacha-rya S, Bray BA. Hyaluronan affects extravascular water in lungs of un- anesthetized rabbits. J Appl Physiol. 1989;66:2595-9
  5. Weindl G, Schaller M, Schäfer-Korting M, Korting HC. Hyaluronic acid in the treatment and prevention of skin diseases: molecular biological, pharmaceutical and clinical aspects. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2004;17:207-13
  6. Turino GM. The lung parenchyma--a dynamic matrix. (J. Burns Amberson lecture). Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985; 132:1324-34
  7. Jiang D, Liang J, Fan J, Yu S, Chen S, Luo Y, Prestwich GD, Mascarenhas MM, Garg HG, Quinn DA, Homer RJ, Goldstein DR, Bucala R, Lee PJ, Medzhitov R, Noble PW. Regulation of lung injury and repair by Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan. Nat Med. 2005;11:1173-9
  8. Termeer C, Benedix F, Sleeman J, Fieber C, Voith U, Ahrens T, Miyake K, Freudenberg M, Galanos C, Simon JC. Oligosaccharides of Hyaluronan activate dendritic cells via tolllike receptor 4. J Exp Med. 2002;195:99-111
  9. Voelcker V, Gebhardt C, Averbeck M, Saalbach A, Wolf V, Weih F, Sleeman J, Anderegg U, Simon J. Hyaluronan fragments induce cytokine and metalloprotease upregulation in human melanoma cells in part by signalling via TLR4. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:100-7
  10. Pivarcsi A, Bodai L, Réthi B, Kenderessy-Szabó A, Koreck A, Széll M, Beer Z, Bata-Csörgoo Z, Magócsi M, Rajnavölgyi E, Dobozy A, Kemény L. Expression and function of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in human keratinocytes. Int Immunol. 2003;15:721-30
  11. Gamer AO, Leibold E, van Ravenzwaay B. The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20:301-7
  12. Méhul B, Asselineau D, Bernard D, Leclaire J, Régnier M, Schmidt R, Bernerd F. Gene expressionprofiles of three different models of reconstructed human epidermis and classical cultures of keratinocytes using cDNA arrays. Arch Dermatol Res. 2004;296:145-56
  13. Langmann T, Moehle C, Mauerer R, Scharl M, Liebisch G, Zahn A, Stremmel W, Schmitz G. Loss of detoxification in inflammatory bowel disease: dysregulation of pregnane X receptor target genes. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127:26-40
  14. Corcuff P, Chatenay F, Leveque JL. A fully automated system to study skin surface patterns.Int J Cosmetic Sci. 1984;6:167-176
Bioavailability of 2-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid as ascorbic acid in healthy humans
Sadako Nakamura, Ph.D., and Tsuneyuki Oku, Ph.D.
  1. Mandai T, Yoneyama M, Sasaki S, Muto N, Yamamoto I. The crystal structure and physicochemical properties of L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside. Carbohydr Res 1992;232:197–205.
  2. Gregory JF III. Nutritional properties and significance of vitamin glycosides. Annu Rev Nutr 1998;18:277–96.
  3. Takebayashi J, Tai A, Gohda E, Yamamoto I. Characterization of the radical-scavenging reaction of 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives, AA-2G, AA-2P, and AA-2S: a kinetic and stoichiometric study. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:766 –71.
  4. Muto N, Ban Y, Akiba M, Yamamoto I. Evidence for the in vivo formation of ascorbic acid 2-O-α-glucoside in guinea pigs and rats.Biochem Pharmacol 1991;42:625–31.
  5. Wakamiya H, Suzuki E, Yamamoto I, Akiba M, Arakawa N. In situ intestinal absorption of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid in guinea pigs. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1995;41:265–72.
  6. Yamamoto I, Suga S, Mitoh Y, Tanaka M, Muto N. Antiscorbutic activity of L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside and its availability as a vitamin C supplement in normal rats and guinea pigs. J Pharmacobiodyn 1990;13:688 –95.
  7. Muto N, Terasawa K, Yamamoto I. Evaluation of ascorbic acid 2-O-α-glucoside as vitamin C source: mode of intestinal hydrolysis and absorption following oral administration. Int J Vitam Nutr Res1992;62:318 –23.
  8. Kumano Y, Sakamoto T, Egawa M, Iwai I, Tanaka M, Yamamoto I. In vitro and in vivo prolonged biological activities of novel vitamin C derivative, 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), in cosmetic fields. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1998;44:345–59.
  9. Yamamoto I, Muto N, Murakami K, Akiyama J. Collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts is stimulated by a stable form of ascorbate, 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid. J Nutr1992;122:871–7.
  10. Hodges RE, Hood J, Canham JE, Saubelich HE, Baker EM. Clinical manifestations of ascorbic acid deficiency in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1971;24:432– 43.
  11. Bezerra FS, Valenca SS, Lanzetti M, Pimenta WA, Castro P, Koatz VLG. α-Tocopherol and ascorbic acid supplementation reduced acute lung inflammatory response by cigarette smoke in mouse. Nutrition 2006;22:1192–201.
  12. Gey KF. Vitamins E plus C and interacting conutrients required for optimal health. A critical and constructive review of epidemiology and supplementation data regarding cardiovascular disease and cancer. Biofactors 1998;7:113–74.
  13. Dahlqvist A. Method of assay of intestinal disaccharidases. Anal Biochem 1964;7:18 –25.
  14. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;72:248 –58.
  15. Brubacher D, Moser U, Jordan P. Vitamin C concentrations in plasma as a function of intake: meta-analysis. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2000;70: 226–37.
  16. Blanchard J, Tozer TN, Rowland M. Pharmacokinetic perspectives on megadoses of ascorbic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1165–71.
  17. Cameron E, Campbell A. The orthomolecular treatment of cancer. II. Clinical trial of high-dose ascorbic acid supplements in advanced human cancer. Chem Biol Interact 1974;9:285–315.
  18. Kallner AB, Hartmann D, Hornig DH. On the requirements of ascorbic acid in man: steady-state turnover and body pool in smokers. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:1347–55.
  19. Li Y, Schellhorn HE. New developments and novel therapeutic perspectives for vitamin C. J Nutr 2007;137:2171– 84.
  20. Ataka S, Tanaka M, Nozaki S, Mizuma H, Mizuno K, Tahara T, et al. Effects of applephenon and ascorbic acid on physical fatigue. Nutrition 2007;23:419–423.
Biochemical and Molecular Roles of Nutrients
Itaru Yamamoto, Norio Moto, Kouki Murakami and Jun-Ichi Akiyama
  1. Burns, J. }., Rivers, }. M. & Machlin, L. f., eds. (1987) Third conference on vitamin C. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 498: 1-533. 
  2. Tajima, S. & Pinnell, R. S. (1982) Regulation of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid increases type I procollagen mRNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 106: 632-637.
  3. Lyons, B. L. & Schwarz, R. I. (1984) Ascorbate stimulation of PAT cells causes an increase in transcription rates and a decrease in degradation rates of procollagen mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 12: 2569-2579
  4. Schwarz, R. I., Kleinman, P. & Owens, N. (1987) Ascorbate can act as an inducer of the collagen pathway because most steps are tightly coupled. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 498: 172-185.
  5. Tolbert, B. M., Downing, M., Carlson, R. W., Knight, K. &. Baker, E. M. (1975] Chemistry and metabolism of ascorbic acid and ascorbate sulfate. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 258: 48-69.
  6. Nomura, H., Ishiguro, T. & Morimoto, S. (1969) Studies on Lascorbic acid derivatives. III. Bis JL-ascorbic acid-3,3') phos phate and L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 17: 387^93.
  7. Imai, Y., Usui, T., Matsuzaki, T., Yokotani, H., Mina, H. & Aramaki, Y. (1967) The antiscorbutic activity of L-ascorbic acid phosphate given orally and percutaneously in guinea pigs. JPN. J. Pharmacol. 17: 317-324.
  8. Machlin, L. ]., Garcia, F., Kuenzig, W. & Brin, M. (1979) Antiscorbutic activity of ascorbic acid phosphate in the rhesus monkey and guinea pigs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32: 325-331.
  9. Hata, R. (1988) Vitamin C and cell growth: use of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate in culture for construction of threedimensional structure from isolated cells. Seikagaku 60: 201-206.
  10. Hata, R. & Senoo, H. (1989) L-Ascorbic acid 2-phosphate stimulates collagen accumulation, cell proliferation, and for mation of a three-dimensional tissue-like substance by skin fibroblasts. J. Cell. Physiol. 138: 8-16.
  11. Kuenzig, W., Avenia, R. & Kamm, J. f. (1974) Studies on the antiscorbutic activity of ascorbate 2-sulfate in the guinea pig. f. Nutr. 104: 952-956.
  12. Machlin, L. J., Garcia, F., Richter, C. B., Spiegel, H. E. & Brin, M. (1976) Lack of antiscorbutic activity of ascorbate 2-sulfatein the rhesus monkey. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 29: 825-831.
  13. Miyake, T. & Suzuki, Y. (1971) Enzymatic formation of new Lascorbic acid glucosides. Vitamins (Kyoto) 43: 205-209.
  14. Suzuki, Y. & Uchida, K. (1989) Enzymatic formation of Lglucosylascorbic acid. Vitamins (Kyoto) 63: S197 (abs).
  15. Yamamoto, I., Muto, N., Murakami, K., Suga, S. & Yamaguchi H. (1990) L-Ascorbic acid a-glucoside formed by regioselective transglucosylation with rat intestinal and rice seed
  16. Yamamoto, I., Muto, N., Nagata, E., Nakamura, T. & Suzuki, Y. (1990) Formation of a stable L-ascorbic acid a-glucoside by mammalian a-glucosidase-catalyzed transglucosylation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1035: 44-50.
  17. Muto, N., Nakamura, T. & Yamamoto, I. (1990) Enzymatic formation of a nonreducing L-ascorbic acid a-glucoside: purification and properties of a-glucosidases catalyzing site-specific transglucosylation from rat small intestine. J. Biochem. 107:222-227.
  18. Muto, N., Suga, S., Fujii, K., Goto, K. & Yamamoto, I. (1990) Formation of a stable ascorbic acid 2-glucoside by specific transglucosylation with rice seed a-glucosidase. Agrie. Biol. Chem. 54: 1697-1703.
  19. Aga, H., Yoneyama, M., Sakai, S. & Yamamoto, I. (1991) Synthesis of 2-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid by cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus steaiothermophà ¼us. Agrie. Biol. Chem. 55: 1751-1756.
  20. Tanaka, M., Muto, N. & Yamamoto, I. (1991) Characterization of Bacillus stearothermophilus cyclodextrin glucanotrans ferase in ascorbic acid 2-O-a-glucoside formation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1078: 127-132.
  21. Yamamoto, I., Suga, S., Mitoh, Y., Tanaka, M. & Muto, N. (1990) Antiscorbutic activity of L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside and its availability as a vitamin C supplement in normal rats and guinea pigs. J. Pharmacobio-Dyn. 13: 688-695.
  22. Freiberger, H., Grove, D., Sivarajah, A. &. Pinnell, S. R. (1980) Procollagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts: effect of culture conditions on biosynthesis, f. Invest. Dermatol. 75: 425-430.
  23. Peterkofsky, B. & Diegelmann, R. (1971) Use of a mixture of proteinase-free collagenases for the specific assay of radio active collagen in the presence of other proteins. Biochemistry 10: 988-994. 
  24. Giles, K. W. & Myers, A. (1965) An improved diphenylamine method for the estimation of deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature (Lond.) 206: 93.
  25. Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L. & Randall, R. ).(1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent, f. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275.
  26. Peterkofsky, B. & Prather, W. (1976) Cytotoxicity of ascorbate and other reducing agents towards cultured fibroblasts as a result of hydrogen peroxide formation. J. Cell. Physiol. 90: 61-70.
  27. Tan, E.M.L., Ryhänen, L. & Uitto, J. (1983) Proline analogues inhibit human skin fibroblasts growth and collagen production in culture. J. Invest. Dermatol. 80: 261-267.
  28. Schwarz, R. T. & Datema, R. (1984) Inhibitors of trimming new tools in glycoprotein research. Trends Biochem. Sci. 9: 32-34.
  29. Minamiura, N. (1988) Mammalian a-glucosidases. In: Handbook of Amylase and Related Enzymes (The Amylase Research Society of Japan, éd.), pp. 105-109. Pergamon Press,Tokyo, Japan.
  30. Blank, T.J.J. & Peterkofsky, B. (1975) The stimulation of collagen secretion by ascorbate as a result of increased proline hydroxylation in chick embryo fibroblasts. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 171: 259-267.
  31. Muto, N., Ban, Y., Akiba, M. & Yamamoto, I. (1991) Evidence for the in vivo formation of ascorbic acid 2-O-a-glucoside in guinea pigs and rats. Biochem. Pharmacol. 42: 625-631.

Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid prevents oxygen free radical damage to granulation tissue during wound healing.
Trabucchi E, Pallotta S, Morini M, Corsi F, Franceschini R, Casiraghi A,Pravettoni A, Foschi D, Minghetti P.

Enchancing Effect of 2-O-α-D Glycopyranosyl- Ascorbic Acid, a Stable Ascorbic Acid Derivate on Collagen Synthesis
Yosimaru Kumano, Tetsuo Sakamoto, Mariko Egawa, Muneo Tanaka and Itaru Yamamoto

  1. Tolbert B. M Downing M. Carlson R.W Knight K. Baker E, M. Ann NY Acad Su 258,48-69 (1957)
  2. Nomura H. Ishiguro T. Morimoto S Chem Plurm Bull 17, 387-393 (1969)
  3. Imai Y. Usui T. Matsuzaki T. Yokoani H. Mina H, Aramaki Y, Jpn J pharmacol 17 317-324 (1967)

In Vitro and In Vivo Prolonged Biological Activities of Novel Vitamin C Derivative, 2-O-ƒ¿-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-Ascorbic  Acid (AA-2G), in Cosmetic Fields
Yoshimaru Kumano Tetsuo Sakamoto, Mariko Egawa, Ichiro Iwai, Muneo Tanaka and Itaru Yamamoto

  1. Burns JJ, Rivers JM, Machin LJ, eds. 1987. Third conference on vitamin C. Ann NY Acad Sci 498: 1-533.
  2. Tajima S, Pinnell RS. 1982. Regulation of collagen synthesis by ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid increases type I procollagen mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 106: 632-637.
  3. Yamamoto I, Muto N, Nagata E, Nakamura T, Suzuki Y. 1990. Formation of a stable L-ascorbic acid α-glucoside by mammalian α-glucosidase-catalyzed transglucosylation. Biochem Biophys Acta 1035: 44-50.
  4. Muto N, Nakamura T, Yamamoto I. 1990. Enzymatic formation of a non-reducing L-ascorbic acid α-glucoside: Purification and properties of a α-glucosidases catalyzing site-specific transglucosylation from rat small intestine. J Biochem 107: 222-227.
  5. Muto N, Suga S, Fujii K, Goto K, Yamamoto I. 1990. Formation of a stable ascorbic acid 2-glucoside by specific transglucosylation with rice seed α-glucosidase. Agric Biol Chem 54: 1697-1703.
  6. Aga H, Yoneyama M, Sakai S, Yamamoto I. 1991. Synthesis of 2-O-α-D-Glucopyranosyl L-ascorbic acid by cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Agric Biol Chem 55: 1751-1756.
  7. Miya H, Nomura H, Imai Y, Takashima H. 1970. Chemistry and application of ascorbicJ Nutr Sci Vitamino Activities of a Novel Vitamin C Derivative, AA-2G, in Cosmetic Fields 359acid phosphate. Bitamins (Vitamins) 41:387-398.
  8. Okumura M, Arakawa N. 1989. Chapter 16. Vitamin C. In: Vitamin Handbook 3 (the Vitamin Society of Japan, ed), p 135-143, Kagaku Dojin, Kyoto.
  9. Imai Y, Usui T, Matsuzaki T, Yokotani H, Mima H, Aramaki Y. 1967. The antiscorbutic activity of L-ascorbic acid phosphate given orally and percutaneously in Guinea pigs. Jpn J Pharmacol 17: 317-324.
  10. Maeda A, Sasaki K. 1988. Manual of Histologic Staining Methods (in Japanese), p 54-56. IshiyakuPublishers, Tokyo.
  11. Oikawa A, Nakayama M. 1973. Quantitative measurement of melanin as tyrosine equivalent and as weight of purified melanin. J Biol Med 46: 500-507.
  12. Rango R, Mitchen J, Wilding G. 1990. DNA fluorometric assay in 96-well tissue culture plate using Hoechst 33258 after cell lysis. Anal Biochem 191: 31-34.
  13. Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S, Manning T, Pinnell S. 1992. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br J Dermatol 127: 247-253.
  14. Johnson BE, Mandell G, Daniels F. 1972. Melanin and cellular reactions to ultraviolet radiation. Nature N Biol 235: 147-149.
  15. Yamamoto I, Suga S, Mitoh Y, Tanaka M, Muto N. 1990. Antiscorbutic activity of L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside and its availability as a vitamin C supplement in normal rats and Guinea pigs. J Pharmacobio-Dyn 13: 688-695.
  16. Muto N, Terasawa K, Yamamoto I. 1992. Evaluation of ascorbic acid 2-O-aƒ¿-glucoside as vitamin C source: Mode of intestinal hydrolysis and absorption following oral administration. Internat J Vit Nutr Res 62: 318-323.
  17. Yamamoto I, Muto N, Murakami K, Akiyama J. 1992. Collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts is stimulated by a stable form of ascorbate, 2-O-ƒ¿-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid. J Nutr 122: 871-877.
  18. Yamamoto I, Tanaka M, Muto N. 1993. Enhancement of in vitro antibody production of murinesplenocyte by ascorbic acid 2-O-ƒ¿-glucoside. Int J Immunopharmac 15: 319-325.
  19. Danno K, Horio T. 1987. Sunburn cell: Factors involved in its formation. Photochem Photobiol 45: 683--690.
  20. Allen ME, ed. 1991. Good Clinical Practice in Europe (Investigator's Handbook), p Ap. II:1-2:4. IBRD-Rostrum Global, Romford.Vol 44, No 3, 1998